Structure of monocot seeds

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Structure of monocot seeds - Companion Work Saber, on this occasion I will share articles regarding the structure of monocot seeds. Before discussing the topic bahsan above, is useful to discuss first dahul whether these seeds?. Seed is the part that comes from going to seed and in it contains a new individual candidates, namely institutions. The Institute will take place after pollination or persarian followed by fertilization. Seeds (Latin: cement) is the ovule (ovulum) of flowering plants that have been cooked. From an evolutionary standpoint, the seeds are tiny plant embryo or modified so that it can last longer on less suitable conditions for growth.


1 - Section - Section Seed:

Leather Bean (Testa). Is the outer seed coat. Testa derived from the modified ovule intergumen during seed formation takes place. All parts intergumen skin may contribute to the formation of seeds. However, in most seed intergumen most of the network was destroyed and absorbed by other developing tissues on the seeds. In a nut shell some plants can be found a layer of radially elongated cells, which resembles a palisade but without the space - the so-called intercellular spaces Malpighi cells. Layer consists of cellulose, lignin and chitin. Testa layer consists of:

1- Sarkotesta: The outermost layer.

2- Sklerotesta: the middle layer, thick and hard.

3- Endotesta: inner layer, the thin membrane and the fleshy.

2 - There is a part - the part that often accompanies seed surface, which in each - each seed has a different part. Part - the part that is:

1- Wing (Ala). Is a widening of the outer skin to form wings.

2- Fur (Coma). It is a protrusion of cells - the cells that form the outer nut hair - fine hair.

3- Salut Seeds (Arillus). Is the growth of the umbilical cord.

4- Pseudo-coated seeds (Arillodium). Is growing around the burrow ovule (Microphyle).

5- Navel Seeds (Hilus). It is a file attachment with the umbilical cord.

6- Liang Seeds (Microphyle). Liang small file inclusion reed pollen into the ovule fertilization events. The edge of the canal is often grown into whitish colored body - putihan and software called karankula.

File - File Transport Vessels (chalaza). Is a meeting place between intergumen the nucleus. Bone Seed (raphe). Canal umbilical cord in seeds. Usually found in seeds from ovules.

3 - Structure of monocot seeds:

1- skin Seeds

2- Endosperm, is a tissue that surrounds the embryo and cotyledons contained in containing food reserves.

3- Skutellum / cotyledon / piece seeds. Cotyledon contains the food reserve in which there is starch, protein and several enzymes.

4- Coleoptile, is the sheath tip of the embryo / plumula.

5- Plumula, is the primary bud stem bud institution.

6- Radicle (root will).

7- Koleoriza, is the part that surrounds the roots.

8- Embryonic axis, is the bottom / base of the embryo.

9- Hipokotil, is the bottom of the embryonic axis attached to the cotyledons.

10- Epikotil, is the top of the embryonic axis attached to the cotyledons.

11- Embryos (will plant)


4 - Germination:

Germination (germination) is an early stage of development of a plant, especially the seed plants. In this stage, the embryo in the seed which was originally located on a dormant condition experience a number of physiological changes that cause it to develop into a young plant. Young plants are known as sprouts. Sprouts is a plant (sporophyte) young newly developed from the embryonic stage in the seed. Stage of development is called germination and is a critical stage in the life of plants. Sprouts are usually divided into three main parts: the radicle (embryonic root), hipokotil, and cotyledons (leaves the institution).

Germination begins with the uptake of water from the environment around the seeds, good soil, air, and other media. The change observed is the growing size of the so-called seed imbibition phase (meaning "to drink"). Seeds absorb water from the surrounding environment, both from land and air (in the form of dew or moisture. Effect that occurs is due to the growing size of the seed cell biology. Embryonic cells enlarged and softened seeds. Presence of water in the cells activate a number of enzymes early germination . Later sections active in mitosis stimulated cell-division, as at the end of the radicle. effect size greater radicle and skin or shell beans driven from within, which eventually broke.


5 - Stages of germination:

Bij developments related to chemical aspects. The process includes several stages, including imbibition, secretion of hormones and enzymes, hydrolysis of food reserves, food delivery dissolved and hormones to the growing point or other areas, as well as assimilation (photosynthesis). The process of absorption of fluid in the seed (imbibition) occurs through the micropyle. Air enters the cotyledons swell. The swelling eventually led to the outbreak of the testa. Early development was preceded active hydrolase enzyme (proteases, lipases, and carbohydrases) and hormones in the cotyledons or endosperm by the presence of water. The enzyme protease work immediately alter the protein molecules into amino acids. Amino acids are used to make new protein molecules to the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Stockpiles chronicled starch into maltose and then into glucose. Some glucose is converted into cellulose, the material to make the cell walls of the new cells. Food items such as maltose and soluble amino acids would diffuse into the embryo.

All of these processes require energy. Seed obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose during the process of respiration. Breakdown of glucose derived from starch accumulation causes seeds to lose weight. After a few days, plumula grow above ground. The first leaves begin to open and carry out photosynthesis.


6 - Germination Study:

Based on the position of cotyledons in the germination process known hipogeal and epigeal germination. Hipogeal is elongated growth of epikotil that led plumula seed out through the skin and emerged on the ground. Cotyledons relatively fixed position. Examples of this type occur in peas and corn. In epigeal hipokotillah growing lengthwise, consequently plumula cotyledons and pushed to the ground. Germination occurs in this type such as green beans and distance. Knowledge of this is used by agronomists to estimate the depth of planting.


Such acknowledgments Above article is about the structure of monocot seeds, hopefully this article can provide useful information for us all

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